Cabbage Cultivation

Saturday, June 5, 2010

Cultivation Practices for Cabbage

Medicinal Properties of Cabbage
The cabbage is a popular cultivar  of the species Brassica Family  and is used as a leafy green vegetable.The only part of the plant that is normally eaten is the leafy head; more precisely, the spherical cluster of immature leaves, excluding the partially unfolded outer leaves. Cabbage is used in a variety of dishes for its naturally spicy flavor. The so-called "cabbage head" is widely consumed raw, cooked, or preserved in a great variety of dishes.
Cabbage is an excellent source of vitamin C. It also contains significant amounts of glutamine, an amino acid that has anti-inflammatory  properties. Cabbage can also be included in dieting programs, as it is a low calorie food.
It is a source of indole-3-carbinol, or I3C, a compound used as an adjuvant therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, a disease of the head and neck caused by human papillomavirus that causes growths in the airway that can lead to death.
In European folk medicine, cabbage leaves are used to treat acute inflammation.A paste of raw cabbage may be placed in a cabbage leaf and wrapped around the affected area to reduce discomfort. Some claim it is effective in relieving painfully engorged breasts in breastfeeding women.Fresh cabbage juice has been shown to promote rapid healing of peptic ulcers.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy                                                                       103 kJ (25 kcal)
Carbohydrates                                                          5.8 g
Sugars                                                                        3.2 g
Dietary fiber                                                             2.5 g
Fat                                                                             0.1 g
Protein                                                                      1.28 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1)                                                  0.061 mg (5%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)                                                 0.040 mg (3%)
Niacin (Vit. B3)                                                        0.234 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)                                             0.212 mg (4%)
Vitamin B6                                                               0.124 mg (10%)
Folate (Vit. B9)                                                        53 μg (13%)
Vitamin C                                                                  36.6 mg (61%)
Calcium                                                                     40 mg (4%)
Iron                                                                           0.47 mg (4%)
Magnesium                                                              12 mg (3%)
Phosphorus                                                              26 mg (4%)
Potassium                                                                170 mg (4%)
Zinc                                                                           0.18 mg (2%)

Cultivation Practices for Cabbage

1. Climate:
Cabbage is a cool season crop. It grows well at the temperature of 15°C - 25°C.Optimum Temp. for Germination is 25-30°C. Plants grow weak under high temperature conditions. However, some heat – tolerant varieties can grow well in a hot and rainy season.

2. Soil:
Cabbage thrives best on deep loam or sandy loam soil with pH 6- 7, rich in organic matter and good drainage.

3. Seedling Bed:
Usually 120gms seeds are required for one acre.
Apply 480Kgs of dry manure in to a seedling bed of 160 m², and then sow the seed on the seedbed. This should produce sufficient seedlings for one acre of field.

4. Transplanting and spacing:
Transplant the seedlings at 4- 5 true leaves stage, about 25 days after sowing. Usually space them 45 cm apart in double rows of 45-60 cm apart on each bed of 90- 100 cm wide.
Early maturity - Row to Row : 45 cm, Plant to Plant : 30 cm
Late Maturity - Row to Row : 60cm, Plant to Plant : 45 cm

5. Fertilizer:

It is better to use urea instead of Ammonium Sulphate where the soil is relatively acidic.
If the soil is boron deficient, 5 –10 kg/ha borax should be applied before land preparation.
For basal fertilizer, manure should be applied into the rows before chemical fertilizer.
Chemical Fertilizers: Fertilizer application varies with soil fertility.
Basal application before transplanting: 25:50:60 NPK kg / acre. 
First top dressing 10-15 days after transplanting: 25:50:60 NPK kg / acre.   
Second application 20 – 25 days after first top dressing: 25:00:00 NPK kg / acre.
Third application 10-15 days after second application: 25:00:00 NPK kg / acre.
Boron & Molybdenum should be sprayed at button stage.

6. Management:
Irrigation: Cabbage cannot tolerant drought. Therefore irrigation should be applied frequently and evenly, especially in the head developing period. Irrigation should be applied following the first and the second side dressing. It is better to keep a little water in the furrow in the hot season. But drainage must be carried out in the rainy days.
Pruning: It is necessary to remove the side shoots as soon as possible.
Weeding: Weeds must be removed as early as possible by hoeing but not too deep to damage the roots. Hoeing should not be done during the latter part of the growing season. Herbicide can be used for weed control in the cabbage field. It is recommended to apply:
1. 50% Enide (WP) 3-4 kg per hectare at the dilution of 1:350-400.
2. 44.5% Treflan (EC) 4-6 Liters per hectare at the dilution rate of 1:150-200.
3. 33% Stomp (EC) 3 Liters per hectare at the dilution rate of 1:300.
Chose only one of above herbicides, spray it on beds and in furrows evenly before transplanting.
The concentration and dosage of herbicides should be observed strictly and they must be tested before using.
Mulching: Straw mulching should be applied after transplanting to prevent soil erosion during the rainy season.

8. Harvest:
Cabbage is usually harvested when the heads reach full size and are firm. However, for the early market heads are harvested as soon as they have attained sufficient size since price is usually more important then size. In harvesting the heads are cut with a large knife then are placed along the rows with the stem – side up. Pack the heads when the cuts are dry.

9. Plant protection:
Days after transplanting
10 Days Mancozeb (2gm/lit) + Dimethoate (2ml/lit)
20 Days COC (3gm/lit)+ Cartap-hydrochloride (1gm/lit)
30 Days Chlorothalonil  (2gm/lit) + Indoxacarb  (0.25ml/lit)
40 Days Ridomil  (2gm/lit) + Bt (Delfin/Dipel) (0.5gm/lit)
50 Days COC(3 gm/ lit)+ Quinolphos  (2ml/lit)

Compiled by Harsh Saxena

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